Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
“D” VALUE:

Time in minutes at a specified temperature required to destroy 90& of microorganisms’ population.


“Z” VALUE:

The number of degrees Fahrenheit required for a specific bacterial thermal death time curve to pass through one log cycle.


Acid food:
Any foods with finished equilibrium pH value of 4.6 or smaller. Tomatoes, pears, pineapples, and the juices thereof, having a pH of less than 4.7, and figs having a pH of 4.9 or below are also classed as acid food.

ACIDIFIED FOOD:

A low-acid food to which acid(s) or acid food(s) are added and which has a finished equilibrium pH of 4.6 or below and a water activity (aw) greater than 0.85.


ASEPTIC PROCESSING AND PACKAGING:

The filling of a commercially sterilized cooled product into pre-sterilized containers, followed by aseptic hermetical sealing, with a pre-.sterilized closure, in an atmosphere free of micro-organisms.


AUTOCLAVE:

A vessel in which high temperatures can be reached by using high steam pressure. Bacteria are destroyed more readily at elevated temperatures, and autoclaves are used to sterilize food, for example cans.


AW:

A symbol for “water activity” àSee “Water Activity”


Bentonite:
A colloidal clay used as an absorbent. Also used in model systems for determining rate of heat penetration.

BLANCHING:

Heating by direct contact with hot water or live steam. It softens the tissues, eliminates air from the tissues, destroys enzymes, and washes away raw flavors.


BLEEDERS:

Openings used to remove air that enters with steam, from retorts and steam chambers and to promote circulation of steam in such retorts and steam chambers.