Time in minutes at a specified temperature required to destroy 90& of microorganisms’ population.
The number of degrees Fahrenheit required for a specific bacterial thermal death time curve to pass through one log cycle.
A low-acid food to which acid(s) or acid food(s) are added and which has a finished equilibrium pH of 4.6 or below and a water activity (aw) greater than 0.85.
The filling of a commercially sterilized cooled product into pre-sterilized containers, followed by aseptic hermetical sealing, with a pre-.sterilized closure, in an atmosphere free of micro-organisms.
A vessel in which high temperatures can be reached by using high steam pressure. Bacteria are destroyed more readily at elevated temperatures, and autoclaves are used to sterilize food, for example cans.
A symbol for “water activity” àSee “Water Activity”
Heating by direct contact with hot water or live steam. It softens the tissues, eliminates air from the tissues, destroys enzymes, and washes away raw flavors.
Openings used to remove air that enters with steam, from retorts and steam chambers and to promote circulation of steam in such retorts and steam chambers.